# All commands, alphabetic order; letter P

## \P (constant)

The \P command translates to a pilcrow sign, ¶ or &#xB6;. It is equivalent to \textparagraph. See description of the latin supplement characters.

## \p@ (rigid length)

You should not modify this length, so that it will be constantly equal to one pt.

## page (counter)

The page counter is the counter number zero. The page number is incremented (in LaTeX) via \stepcounter{page} (this might reset some other counters). In Tralics, the initial page number is one, and is left unchanged. \thepage produces an arabic version of the page.

## \pagebreak

The \pagebreak command takes an optional argument. It is used to favor a page break at this position in the text. This command is ignored in Tralics.

## \pagecolor

Translation is a <pagecolor> element, see \color.

## \pagedepth (rigid length)

In Tralics, you can assign a dimension to this variable, but the value shown by \the is always zero. See \pagetotal.

The command is ignored in Tralics. See \savingdiscards for explanations.

## \pagefilllstretch (rigid length)

In Tralics, you can assign a dimension to this variable, but the value shown by \the is always zero. See \pagetotal.

## \pagefillstretch (rigid length)

In Tralics, you can assign a dimension to this variable, but the value shown by \the is always zero. See \pagetotal.

## \pagefilstretch (rigid length)

In Tralics, you can assign a dimension to this variable, but the value shown by \the is always zero. See \pagetotal.

## \pagegoal (rigid length)

The variable \pagegoal is a dimension that holds the space reserved on the current page for the text. It is \vsize, minus the size reserved for the footnotes. You can change this variable.

In Tralics, \showthe\pagegoal always yields 0.0pt although \pagegoal=15pt has been issued.

## \paperheight, \paperwidth (rigid length)

The default values of these parameters correspond to A4 paper. Class options of the form letterpaper should change these values.

## \pageref

Translation of \pageref{x} is <ref target='uid2' rend='page'/>. See \anchor for explanations on how the target (here uid2) is constructed for the argument x'.

## \pagestretch (rigid length)

In Tralics, you can assign a dimension to this variable, but the value shown by \the is always zero. See \pagetotal.

## \pageshrink (rigid length)

In Tralics, you can assign a dimension to this variable, but the value shown by \the is always zero. See \pagetotal.

## \pagestyle, \pagenumbering, \thispagestyle

The commands \pagestyle, \thispagestyle and \pagenumbering are not interpreted by Tralics; they take an argument and construct a <pagestyle> element. Example

\pagenumbering{arabic} \pagestyle{mypagestyle}\thispagestyle{plain}


Translation

<pagestyle numbering='arabic'/>
<pagestyle style='mypagestyle'/>
<pagestyle this-style='plain'/>


## \pagetotal (rigid length)

TeX maintains in some registers, containing dimensions, the size of the current page. It is possible (with care) to modify them. It is possible to consult the values. In Tralics, \pagetotal=100cm puts one meter into some variable, but \showthe\pagetotal will always return 0.0pt. Page breaks are chosen in such a way as to minimize a cost, depending on the penalty of the break (inserted by the user, or the line breaking algorithm), and the badness that depends on how the glue of the page can compensate the difference between \pagetotal and \pagegoal.

If you put a glue of value 1pt plus 2fill and a glue of value 3pt plus 4 fil minus 5filll, the \pagetotal will hold the natural height, namely 4pt. The stretch part is not 2fill (as would be the sum of the two glues). It is the sum of \pagestretch and \pagefilstretch (times fil) and \pagefillstretch (times fill) and \pagefilllstretch (times filll). The shrink part is in \pageshrink (if its value is not finite, a message of the form Infinite glue shrinkage found on current page is issued). Finally, the \pagedepth holds the depth of the page; this is the depth of the last box on the page, thus is a dimension, not a glue.

## \par

The \par command is used to terminate the current paragraph. There are two aliases, \endgraf and \@@par. An empty line gives a \par. Hence the following five lines of input

{\def\par{!\endgraf}
Redefining par

}


are translated by Tralics into:

<p>Redefining par !</p>
<p>!</p>


Note: after the letters par', there is a newline character that TeX converts into a space. This space is in general invisible, because TeX removes the last item in a paragraph if it is glue, before adding the \parfillskip glue.
The next example shows that each empty line generates a \par, but the \par does nothing outside paragraph mode.

\count0=0
Redefining par

\the\count0}


gives

<p>Redefining par</p>
<p>3</p>


## \paragraph

The \paragraph command is used to divide a text in smaller parts. There is also a counter paragraph, incremented by the command. See the description of the \part command.

## \paragraphmark

The \paragraphmark command takes one argument and does nothing. You can redefine it. It is used to mark paragraphs. See \chaptermark for an explanation of page marks.

## \parallel (math symbol)

The \parallel command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&parallel;</mo> (Unicode U+2225, ∥). See description of the \le command.

## \parbox

You can say \parbox[foo][bar][gee]{2cmPlus3mm}{some \it box content}. The arguments are the same as those of the minipage environment. The first three optional arguments are ignored. After that comes a rubber length (in the example, it is nearly 57pt plus 8.5pt), which is also ignored. The last argument is translated as if it were \vbox. However, the tokens from \everyvbox are not inserted, and \ifvmode might be false.

## \parfillskip (rubber length)

You can say \parfillskip=10pt plus 2pt minus 3pt. This explains to TeX that it should put 10pt (maybe up to 2pt more, maybe up to 3pt less) of glue between the right margin and the last word in a paragraph (default is 0pt plus1fil). Unused by Tralics. (See scanglue for details of argument scanning).

## \parindent (rigid length)

You can say \parindent=5mm, as a result TeX will use 5mm as horizontal space for \indent. In Tralics, the effect of \indent is to add a flag on the attribute list of the current paragraph; no numerical value is used. (See scandimen for details of argument scanning).

## \parshape

When you say \parshape3 1pt 102pt 3pt 104pt 5pt 106pt then TeX will construct a paragraph with a special shape. The first line has width 102pt, is indented by 1pt; the second line has width 104pt, is indented by 3pt; the third line has width 106pt, is indented by 5pt; if the paragraph has more then 3 lines, all lines after the third have the same shape. This declaration applies only to the current paragraph. If you say \the\parshape, you will see 3, the number of special lines in the paragraph shape. (See scandimen for details of argument scanning).

The syntax is the same in Tralics, but nothing special happens. Note that there are extensions in ε-TeX that allows you to access to all parameters. As a consequence, in the current version of Tralics, the dimensions are memorized somewhere.

## \parshapelength (eTeX extension)

The commands \parshapelength, \parshapeindent, read an integer n; they return the length or indentation of the line n in the current parshape; the command \parshapedimen reads 2n or 2n+1, and returns one of these quantities, depending on the parity of the argument. Example: in the following code, the \bad macro is not called. (See scanint for details of argument scanning).

\parshape 3 1pt 2pt 3pt 4pt 5pt 6pt
\parshape 0


## \parsep (rubber length)

The amount of vertical space between paragraphs within an item. It is the value to which LaTeX sets \parskip within a list; unused by Tralics.

## \parskip (rubber length)

You can say \parskip=10pt plus 2pt minus 3pt. This explains to TeX that it should put 10pt (maybe up to 2pt more, maybe up to 3pt less) of glue before the first lines of a paragraph. Unused by Tralics. (See scanglue for details of argument scanning).

## \part

The \part command is the highest division of a document. All sectioning commands can be followed by an optional star, an optional argument and a required argument. The translation is a divXX element (where XX is replaced by a number), that contains the whole part, chapter, section, or paragraph, and whose first element is the title (translation of the mandatory argument) as a <head> element, and whose second element is the alternatile title (translation of the optional argument) as a <alt_head> element. In the starred case the element will has the attribute rend='nonumber'. Otherwise, the counter is incremented, and an anchor is created. In the example that follows the anchor of the \subparagraph contains as id-text the value of \thesubparagraph; the zero in this string is a consequence of the section number not to be incremented. If the configuration file has att_rend="Rend" and att_nonumber="Nonumber", you will see Rend='Nonumber' instead. The translation of the following text

\part{A} \label{label-a}
\chapter{B} \label{label-b}
\section*[optc]{C} \label{label-c}
\subsection{D} \label{label-d}
\subsubsection{E} \label{label-e}
\paragraph{F} \label{label-f}
\subparagraph{G} \label{label-g}
Text \par more text
\ref{label-a} \ref{label-b} \ref{label-c}
\ref{label-d} \ref{label-e} \ref{label-f} \ref{label-g}


will be

<div0 id-text='I' id='cid1'><head>A</head>
<p>Text </p>
<p>more text
<ref target='cid1'/> <ref target='uid1'/> <ref target='uid1'/>
<ref target='uid2'/> <ref target='uid3'/> <ref target='uid4'/> <ref target='uid5'/>
</p>
...
</div6></div5></div4></div3></div2></div1></div0>


The standard classes use a special command (see \toplevelsection) for indicating the highest division. Normally, there is no part nor chapter, so that \part, \chapter and \section give a <div0>, \subsection gives a <div1>, etc. In the case of a report, \part and \chapter are the same, \section is <div1>. In a book, all divisions are different.

Whenever a division of level k is sensed, all divisions at the same level and below (including <p>) are closed. In the case of a book, if you say \frontmatter, \mainmatter, \backmatter, all divisions are closed (these behave like an untitled part).

In the case of the article class, the previous example translates into three <div0> elements, the first two one containing only a title. The label c is in the third element. Since it is a starred section, it has no anchor. In such a case the default anchor, namely uid1, is used. This behavior might change in future versions.

The translation of the previous example could also be

<div0 id-text='I' id='cid1'><head>A</head>
</div0>
</div0>
<p>Text </p>
<p>more text
<ref target='cid1'/> <ref target='cid2'/> <ref target='uid1'/>
<ref target='uid1'/> <ref target='uid2'/> <ref target='uid3'/> <ref target='uid4'/>
</p>
...
</div4></div3></div2></div1></div0>


## \partial (math symbol)

The \partial command is valid only in math mode. It generates a miscellaneous symbol: <mi>&partial;</mi> (Unicode U+2202, ∂). See description of the \ldots command.

## participant, participante, participants, participantes (raweb environment)

These four environments are defined by the ra package, included by the raweb class files. By default all environments are identical, the participant package option restores the default behavior (the XML element name is the environment name).

\newenvironment{participants}{%
\begin{xmlelement*}{participants}\let\par\empty\let\pers\persA}


These environments were designed for indicating people who participate to the team's activity. They should contain only \pers commands (syntax: first name, optional particle, last name, optional more-info).

\def\X{\pers{a}{b}} \def\Y{\pers{c}{d}}
\begin{participant} \X\Y \end{participant}
\begin{participante} \X\Y \end{participante}
\begin{participants} \X\Y \end{participants}
\begin{participantes} \X\Y \end{participantes}


The translation is

<participant>
<pers prenom='a' nom='b'></pers>
<pers prenom='c' nom='d'></pers>
</participant>
<participante>
<pers prenom='a' nom='b'></pers>
<pers prenom='c' nom='d'></pers>
</participante>
<participants>
<pers prenom='a' nom='b'></pers>
<pers prenom='c' nom='d'></pers>
</participants>
<participantes>
<pers prenom='a' nom='b'></pers>
<pers prenom='c' nom='d'></pers>
</participantes>


## \partopsep (rubber length)

A list environment is surrounded by some glue in LaTeX, the sum of \topsep, \parskip and optionally \partopsep. Nothing special is done by Tralics.

## \patterns

You can say something like \patterns{2'2 .a4 'a4 .\^a4 '\^a4 ab2h ... 1zi 1zo 1zu 1zy} This explains how to hyphenate all French words. Since Tralics does no hyphenation, the command and its argument are ignored.

## \pausing (internal integer)

When you say \pausing=89 (or any positive number) then TeX asks for confirmation for every line of input. Unimplemented in Tralics, which works essentially in batch mode. (See scanint for details of argument scanning).

## \penalty (internal integer)

You can say \penalty12345 in your document, but nothing special happens (in vertical mode, TeX exercises the page builder). (see scanint for how the argument is read).

## \perp (math symbol)

The \perp command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&perp;</mo> (Unicode U+22A5, ⊥). See description of the \le command.

## \pers, \persA, \persB (Tralics command for the raweb)

Warning: These commands are not defined by Tralics but by the raweb package; your mileage may vary. You say \pers {Don} {Knuth} [author of TeX] inside a participant environment and \pers {Donald} {Knuth} [Stanford] {Scientist} {American} [author of TeX] [PHD] in the composition section. Brackets denote optional arguments. Between the first to arguments, you can insert a particle like [de]. In such a case, the particle is merged with the name that follows. A special hack is applied: a footnote in the second argument is removed, and the footnote text is moved to the optional argument (the one containing author of TeX'). Initial and final spaces are removed from the first and last name. In the first case \pers is bound to \persA, and in the second case it is \persB. Two auxiliary macros are involved \@persA and \@persB that take three and seven arguments (the get the arguments after merging the particle, and footnote hacking).

The \persA command takes two arguments, first name and last name, with an optional argument between them (a particle), and an optional argument after the name (info). Example

\begin{catperso}{List of Very Important Persons}
% \makeatletter
% \def\@persA#1#2#3{\xbox{pers}{\xbox{firstname}{#1}%
%  \xbox{lastname}{#2}\xbox{info}{#3}}}
\let\pers\persA
\pers{Jean}[de la]{Fontaine}
\pers{Donald}{Knuth}[author of \TeX]
\pers{  Leslie  }{Lamport}
\pers{Jose}{Grimm \footnote{No footnote here}}
\end{catperso}


This is the translation:

<catperso><head>List of Very Important Persons 1</head>
<pers prenom='Jean' nom='de la Fontaine'/>
<pers prenom='Donald' nom='Knuth'>author of <TeX/></pers>
<pers prenom='Leslie' nom='Lamport'/>
<pers prenom='Jose' nom='Grimm'>No footnote here</pers>
</catperso>


If we uncomment the first few lines, we can change the presentation

<catperso><head>List of Very Important Persons 1</head>
<pers><firstname>Jean</firstname><lastname>de la Fontaine</lastname><info/>
</pers><pers><firstname>Donald</firstname><lastname>Knuth</lastname>
<info>author of <TeX/></info>
</pers><pers><firstname>Leslie</firstname><lastname>Lamport</lastname><info/></pers
></catperso>


In the section that describes the team, the \pers command is bound to \persB. The syntax is:

• a required argument, the first name of the person,
• an optional argument, the particle,
• a required argument, the last name of the person,
• an optional argument, the effective research centre,
• a required argument, the professional category of the person,
• a required argument, the organization of the person,
• an optional argument, the info field,
• and an optional argument, the HDR flag.

Example \pers {Rose} {Dieng-Kuntz} [Sophia] {Scientist} {Inria} [1956-2008, Research Director] [yes]. The process is the same as for a normal \persA, there is some preprocessing then the auxiliary macro is called. We show here the preprocessing by redefining the auxiliary macro.

\begin{catperso}{List of Very Important Persons 2}
\makeatletter
\renewcommand\@persB[7][]{\xbox{pers}{\xbox{firstname}{#2}\xbox{lastname}{#3}%
\xbox{localisation}{#1}\xbox{main-interest}{#4}\xbox{nationality}{#5}%
\pers{Jean}[de la]{Fontaine}{Tales}{French}[][phd]
\pers{Donald}{Knuth}{Math}{American}[ author of \TeX]
\pers{Leslie}{Lamport }{Computer Science}{American}
\pers{Jose}{Grimm \footnote{No footnote here}}[Sophia]{Inria}{French}[funny text
\end{catperso}


Translation

<catperso><head>List of Very Important Persons 2</head>
<pers><firstname>Jean</firstname><lastname>de la Fontaine</lastname>
<localisation/><main-interest>Tales</main-interest>
<nationality>French</nationality><info/><hdr>phd</hdr>
</pers>
<pers><firstname>Donald</firstname><lastname>Knuth</lastname>
<localisation/><main-interest>Math</main-interest>
<nationality>American</nationality><info>author of <TeX/></info><hdr/>
</pers>
<pers><firstname>Leslie</firstname><lastname>Lamport</lastname>
<localisation/><main-interest>Computer Science</main-interest>
<nationality>American</nationality><info/><hdr/>
</pers>
<pers><firstname>Jose</firstname><lastname>Grimm</lastname>
<localisation>Sophia</localisation><main-interest>Inria</main-interest>
<nationality>French</nationality><info>No footnote here, funny text</info>
<hdr/>
</pers>
</catperso>


The command \persB checks the three optional parameters (localisation, affiliation, and profession). See \tralics@find@config for how the macro can extract information from the configuration file. For instance, if the configuration file contains a line of the form affiliation_vals ="Inria//Cnrs//University//", then only Inria, Cnrs and University can be used. The same holds for the profession, and research centers (the list of valid fields for the Raweb is given on the Web page of the Raweb). If Tralics is translating the activity report, a list of research centres is given at the start of the document as in \UR{Sophia, Rocquencourt}. For each person you have to indicate which center it belongs to, this must be an element of the argument of \UR (you can omit the argument in case the list has a single element). Otherwise, an error is signaled. Note: there may be special cases: if the argument is +Rennes, it will be replaced by Rennes and the check is omitted, if the argument is =Sophia, this will provide a default value for remaining persons. Example:

\pers {Jean B}{Dupond}[Lyon]{these}{Dec}[Ok][not yet]
\pers {Jean A}{Dupond}[Sophia]{Chercheur}{CNRS}[Ok][not yet]
\pers {Jean B}{Dupond}[+Lyon]{Ingenieur}{INRIA}[Ok][not yet]
\pers {Jean C}{Dupond}[=Paris]{Other}{IBM}[Ok]
\pers {Jean D}{Dupond}{Enseignant}{Other}[Ok][not yet]


The translation is the following

<pers prenom='Jean B' nom='Dupond' affiliation='Dec' profession='these'
hdr='not yet' research-centre='Lyon'>Ok</pers>
<pers prenom='Jean A' nom='Dupond' affiliation='CNRS' profession='Chercheur'
hdr='not yet' research-centre='Sophia'>Ok</pers>
<pers prenom='Jean B' nom='Dupond' affiliation='INRIA' profession='Ingenieur'
hdr='not yet' research-centre='+Lyon'>Ok</pers>
<pers prenom='Jean C' nom='Dupond' affiliation='IBM' profession='Other'
research-centre='=Paris'>Ok</pers>
<pers prenom='Jean D' nom='Dupond' affiliation='Other' profession='Enseignant'
hdr='not yet'>Ok</pers>


See \hphantom.

## \phi (math symbol)

The \phi command is valid only in math mode. It generates a Greek letter: <mi>&phiv;</mi> (Unicode U+3D5, ϕ). See description of the \alpha command.

## \Phi (math symbol)

The \Phi command is valid only in math mode. It generates an uppercase Greek letter: <mi>&Phi;</mi> (Unicode U+3A6, Φ). See description of the \alpha command.

## \pi (math symbol)

The \pi command is valid only in math mode. It generates a Greek letter: <mi>&pi;</mi> (Unicode U+3C0, π). See description of the \alpha command.

## \Pi (math symbol)

The \Pi command is valid only in math mode. It generates an uppercase Greek letter: <mi>&Pi;</mi> (Unicode U+3A0, Π). See description of the \alpha command.

## picture (environment)

The translation of the picture environment is a <picture> element. In it, you can put special objects, described in Chapter 7.1 of the LaTeX manual. It takes as argument a pair of coordinates (for instance (100,200)) and a second one that is optional.

Pair of coordinates are converted to dimensions, in the following way: First, tokens are scanned until finding a comma, and then a closing parenthesis. Standard catcodes are in use, and the characters should not be hidden by braces. For instance (10{,}2,3) is a pair of coordinates, the first one is 10{,}2, the second is 3. In the case of ({12,3},456), the first is 12,3, the second is 456 (note how braces disappear). After that, \unitlength is pushed back, as well as the token list, and scandimen is called. Note that token are expanded, but braces are not removed. Hence (10{,}2,3) will provoke an error, and ({1,5},2) is OK (since 1,5\unitlength means one and a half times \unitlength).

It is wise to set the value of \unitlength before the environment, and to not modify it (but Tralics always uses the current value). See \unitlength command.

There are commands, like \line, that take as argument a pair of integers, interpreted by scanint. For instance, \line(0,\parindent){25} is syntactically correct.
For examples, see the \qbezier command, and the \arc command.

## \pitchfork (math symbol)

The \pitchfork command is valid only in math mode. It generates <mi>&pitchfork;</mi> (Unicode U+22D4, ⋔).

## \@plus

This command expands to plus. Do not modify it.

## \pm (math symbol)

The \pm command is valid only in math mode. It generates a binary operator: <mo>&pm;</mo> (Unicode U+B1, ±). Tralics recognizes the following binary operators:


$\pm \mp \times \div \ast \star \circ \bullet \cdot \cap \cup \uplus \sqcap \sqcup \vee \wedge \setminus \wr \diamond \bigtriangleup \bigtriangledown \triangleleft \triangleright \oplus \ominus \otimes \oslash \odot \bigcirc \dagger \ddagger \amalg$


The XML result is

<formula type='inline'><math xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML'>
<mrow><mo>&pm;</mo><mo>&mp;</mo> <mo>&times;</mo> <mo>&div;</mo> <mo>&ast;</mo>
<mo>&star;</mo> <mo>&SmallCircle;</mo> <mo>&bullet;</mo> <mo>&middot;</mo>
<mo>&cap;</mo> <mo>&cup;</mo> <mo>&uplus;</mo> <mo>&sqcap;</mo>
<mo>&sqcup;</mo> <mo>&vee;</mo> <mo>&wedge;</mo> <mo>&setminus;</mo>
<mo>&wr;</mo> <mo>&diamond;</mo> <mo>&bigtriangleup;</mo> <mo>&bigtriangledown;</mo>
<mo>&triangleleft;</mo> <mo>&triangleright;</mo> <mo>&oplus;</mo> <mo>&ominus;</mo>
<mo>&otimes;</mo> <mo>&osol;</mo> <mo>&odot;</mo> <mo>&bigcirc;</mo>
<mo>&dagger;</mo> <mo>&ddagger;</mo> <mo>&amalg;</mo></mrow>[/itex]</formula>


All these operators are from Table 8.4 of the Latex Companion. If you do not like entity names, you can use the -noentnames switch, and you get

<formula type='inline'>
<math xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML'>
<mrow><mo>&#xB1;</mo><mo>&#x02213;</mo><mo>&#xD7;</mo><mo>&#xF7;</mo>
<mo>&#x2A;</mo><mo>&#x02606;</mo><mo>&#x02218;</mo><mo>&#x02022;</mo>
<mo>&#xB7;</mo><mo>&#x02229;</mo><mo>&#x0222A;</mo><mo>&#x0228E;</mo>
<mo>&#x02293;</mo><mo>&#x02294;</mo><mo>&#x02228;</mo><mo>&#x02227;</mo>
<mo>&#x02216;</mo><mo>&#x02240;</mo><mo>&#x022C4;</mo><mo>&#x025B3;</mo>
<mo>&#x025BD;</mo><mo>&#x025C3;</mo><mo>&#x025B9;</mo><mo>&#x02295;</mo>
<mo>&#x02296;</mo><mo>&#x02297;</mo><mo>&#x000F8;</mo><mo>&#x02299;</mo>
<mo>&#x025EF;</mo><mo>&#x02020;</mo><mo>&#x02021;</mo><mo>&#x02A3F;</mo>
</mrow>[/itex]
</formula>


## \pmod, \pod

This is one of the four modulo commands. See \bmod for an example.

## \postdisplaypenalty (internal integer)

When you say \postdisplaypenalty=97, then TeX will use 97 as penalty for a page break after a display formula. Unused by Tralics. (See scanint for details of argument scanning).

## \pounds

This is the same as \textsterling. It generates the pound sign £.

## \Pr (math symbol)

The \Pr command is valid only in math mode. Its translation is a math operator of the same name <mo form='prefix'>Pr</mo>. For an example see the \log command.

## \prec (math symbol)

The \prec command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&prec;</mo> (Unicode U+227A, ≺). See description of the \le command.

## \precapprox (math symbol)

The \precapprox command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&precapprox;</mo> (Unicode U+2AB7, ⪷).

## \preccurlyeq (math symbol)

The \preccurlyeq command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&preccurlyeq;</mo> (Unicode U+227C, ≼).

## \preceq (math symbol)

The \preceq command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&preceq;</mo> (Unicode U+2AAF, ⪯).

## \precnapprox (math symbol)

The \precnapprox command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&precnapprox;</mo> (Unicode U+2AB9, ⪹).

## \precneqq (math symbol)

The \precneqq command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&precneqq;</mo> (Unicode U+2AB5, ⪵).

## \precnsim (math symbol)

The \precnsim command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&precnsim;</mo> (Unicode U+22E8,⋨).

## \precsim (math symbol)

The \precsim command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&precsim;</mo> (Unicode U+227E, ≾).

## \predisplaydirection (internal integer)

The integer \predisplaydirection contains the text direction preceding a display. Not used by Tralics.

## \predisplaypenalty (internal integer)

When you say \predisplaypenalty=96, then TeX will use 96 as penalty for a page break before a display formula. Unused by Tralics. (See scanint for details of argument scanning).

## \predisplaysize (rigid length)

You may say \predisplaysize=5pt, and the consequence is the following. First, whenever TeX enters a display equation it sets itself \predisplaysize to the length of the line that precedes the display (or -\maxdimen in case this is irrelevant). The variable is consulted after the display is finished (and your modifications are taken into account). The variable \displayindent is set to some value (depending on \parshape, etc.) before the display is typeset and read after; the same holds for \displaywidth (this is the linelength).

After the math formula is typeset (converted to a box), it is added to the main vertical list. Let d be half the line length (\displaywidth) minus the width of the equation; adding a space of width d before the formula will center it. If the formula is too big, with respect to the equation number, some minor corrections are added (see TeXbook, chapter 19 for all details). Let d+s be the sum of this d and the value of \displayindent.

If d+s is less than \predisplaysize, or if there is a left equation number, then a glue of value \abovedisplayskip is added before the display, a glue of value \belowdisplayskip is added after the display; otherwise \abovedisplayshortskip and \belowdisplayshortskip are used.

This parameter is ignored by Tralics.
(See scandimen for details of argument scanning).

## \presetkeys

This command is provided by the xkeyval package.

## \pretolerance (internal integer)

If you say \pretolerance=25, the first pass of TeX's line breaking algorithm succeeds if no line has a badness exceeding 25 (if the pretolerance is negative, TeX omits the first pass). This is not used by Tralics, because no line breaking algorithm is defined. But \pretolerance is set equal to 100.
(See scanint for details of argument scanning).

## \prevdepth

TeX has an internal variable, named aux that contains, in horizontal mode, the \spacefactor and current language. In vertical mode, the aux variable contains the \prevdepth; it is the scaled value representing the depth of the previous box, for use in baseline calculations, or it is <=-1000pt if the next box on the vertical list is to be exempted from baseline calculations.

In Tralics, paragraphs are not split into lines, no baseline computations are done, and this quantity is useless. You can say \prevdepth=123pt, and nothing happens. As a consequence, \showthe \prevdepth will always print 0.0pt.

## \prevgraf

TeX has an internal variable called \prevgraf that records the number of lines in the most recent paragraph that has been completed or partially completed. The value of this variable is used by the line breaking algorithm only when TeX is dealing with nonstandard \parshape or \hangindent. The value of \displaywidth and \displayindent can also depend on the value of \prevgraf. A displayed equation, whatever its value, adds three to \prevgraf.

Since Tralics does not convert paragraphs into lines, it does not compute this quantity, and does not use it. If you say \prevgraf=15 nothing happens. If say \showthe \prevgraf you will get 0.

## \Prime (math symbol)

The \Prime command is valid only in math mode. It generates the double prime character <mo>&Prime;</mo> (Unicode U+2033, ″).

## \prime (math symbol)

The \prime command is valid only in math mode. It generates the single prime character <mo>&apos;</mo> (Unicode U+27). See description of the \ldots command.

## \printindex, \printglossary

These commands define the place where to put the index or glossary, if omitted the end of the document will be used. For details see see \index.

## \prod (math symbol)

The \prod command is valid only in math mode. Its translation is a variable-sized symbol: <mo>&prod;</mo>(Unicode U+220F; ∏). For an example see the \sum command.

## \ProcessOptions, \ProcessOptionsX

Let's consider a package (or class file) that defines options A, B, C and D, and is loaded with C, A and E. If you say \ProcessOptions*, the following happens: the code of options C and A is executed. If the optional star is omitted, the code of A and C is executed (the execution order is specified by the class file; in the case of a star, the order is given by the user file). A warning is signalled if you use a package option, like E, that is not defined by the package. On the other hand, a class option becomes a global option. This option is visible by every package (a warning is signaled by the \begin{document} command if no package declares the option).
See \DeclareOption for how to declare an option. The xkeyval package provides \ProcessOptionsX (see xkeyval). In the current version, global class options are not available.

## \projlim (math symbol)

The \projlim command is valid only in math mode. Its translation is a math operator of the same name <mo form='prefix' movablelimits='true'>projlim</mo>.
For an example see the \log command.

## \propto (math symbol)

The \propto command is valid only in math mode. It generates a relation symbol: <mo>&propto;</mo> (Unicode U+221D, ∝). See description of the \le command.

## \protect

The \protect command can be used to delay expansion of a command. Normally, its value is \relax, but is can be \string (so that \protect\foo prints like \foo) or \noexpand\protect\noexpand, so that \protect\foo expands to \protect\foo (this is useful in an \edef).

In Tralics, the \protect command cannot be expanded, it translates to nothing.

## \protected (eTeX extension)

The command \protected is a prefix, like \long, that applies to a macro definition. A protected macro is not expanded when building an expanded token list (for instance in \edef).

## \provideboolean

If you say \provideboolean{foo}, the effect is the the same as \newboolean{foo}: it defines \iffoo. However, nothing happens if \iffoo exists (we assume that this command was defined by \newboolean, and not by a random \newcommand. The control sequence \iffoo is created by \csname, nasty errors may occur).
See \newboolean for how to use booleans.

## \providecommand

The \providecommand is like \newcommand. It has the same syntax, it defines a command, but if the command is already defined, no error is signaled, and the command is left unchanged.

## \ProvidesClass, \ProvidesFile, \ProvidesPackage

The three commands \ProvidesFile, \ProvidesClass and \ProvidesPackage have a similar syntax (see below), a required argument, that should be a file name, and an optional argument, that starts with a date, and is generally followed by a version number and a small comment. The argument is printed on the transcript file. The two commands \ProvidesClass and \ProvidesPackage should be used in class or package file. The command checks that the argument is the same as the file name; in the example below, we have renamed RR.plt as foo.plt, there is a mismatch on the name. Moreover, at the end of the package, a check is made to see if the package is up to date, by comparing the date arguments.

% package
\ProvidesPackage{RR}[2007/04/25 v1.3 Inria RR for Tralics]
% tex file
\usepackage[bar]{foo}[2008/01/01]
% tty
Warning: package foo claims to be RR.
Unknown option bar' for package foo'
Warning: You have requested, on line 3, version
2008/01/01' of package foo,
but only version
2007/04/25 v1.3 Inria RR for Tralics' is available
`

## \psi (math symbol)

The \psi command is valid only in math mode. It generates a Greek letter:<mi>&psi;</mi> (Unicode U+3C8, ψ). See description of the \alpha command.

## \Psi (math symbol)

The \Psi command is valid only in math mode. It generates an uppercase Greek letter: <mi>&Psi;</mi> (Unicode U+3A8, Ψ). See description of the \alpha command.

## \psfig

Instead of saying \psfig{file=x,width=1} you should say \includegraphics [width=1] {x}. See \includegraphics command.

## \put

You say \put(x,y){object} in order to put an object at a given position into a picture. See description of the picture environment for the syntax of the (x,y) part, and some examples.

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