Explicit typing

Bigloo supports type annotation or type information. As shown in Section ref Module declaration, these annotations can be written both in the module clauses and in module bodies although module body type information is optional. It helps the compiler to produce better quality code and to reject incorrectly typed programs. Type annotations can describe both the result and formal parameter types for global functions and also types for local variable. Due to our module language design (in particular module initialization), Scheme global variables cannot support type information.

Types are either atomic types (see Atomic types), foreign types (see Defining an extern type), or a classes (see Class declaration).

Warning: All type annotations are ignored by the interpreter.

Module body type annotations are introduced by the following special forms.

define (f[::type] [a[::type]]...) bodybigloo syntax

define-inline (f[::type] [a[::type]]...) bodybigloo syntax

let ((var[::type] ...) ...) bodybigloo syntax

let loop ((var[::type] ...) ...) bodybigloo syntax

let* ((var[::type] ...) ...) bodybigloo syntax

letrec ((var[::type] ...) ...) bodybigloo syntax

labels ((var[::type] (var[::type]...) b) ...) bodybigloo syntax

Type annotations are optional. That is, for any of these constructions, if a type annotation is missing, Bigloo uses the default generic type obj instead.

Here is an example of type annotated program:

(module example
   (export (vector-fill!::vector ::vector ::obj)))

(define (vector-fill! v filler)
  (let loop ((i::long (- (vector-length v) 1)))
     (if (< i 0)
            (vector-set! v i filler)
            (loop (- i 1))))))

(let ((v::vector (make-vector 3 4)))
   (vector-fill! v "dummy"))
The types that can be used in annotations are any of:

When a function that contains type annotation is exported, the type annotations must be written in the prototype of the function in the export clause. In that case the type annotation need to be written in the function definition:

(module foo
   (export (succ::int ::int)))

(define (succ x) (+ 1 x))