
This chapter describes Scheme's builtin procedures. The initial (or
``top level'') Scheme environment starts out with a number of variables
bound to locations containing useful values, most of which are primitive
procedures that manipulate data. For example, the variable abs is
bound to (a location initially containing) a procedure of one argument
that computes the absolute value of a number, and the variable +
is bound to a procedure that computes sums. Builtin procedures that
can easily be written in terms of other builtin procedures are identified as
``library procedures''. A program may use a toplevel definition to bind any variable. It may
subsequently alter any such binding by an assignment (see Assignments).
These operations do not modify the behavior of Scheme's builtin
procedures. Altering any toplevel binding that has not been introduced by a
definition has an unspecified effect on the behavior of the builtin procedures.
6.1 Equivalence predicates

A "predicate" is a procedure that always returns a boolean
value ( #t or #f). An "equivalence predicate" is
the computational analogue of a mathematical equivalence relation (it is
symmetric, reflexive, and transitive). Of the equivalence predicates
described in this section, eq? is the finest or most
discriminating, and equal? is the coarsest. Eqv? is
slightly less discriminating than eq?.
The eqv? procedure defines a useful equivalence relation on objects.
Briefly, it returns #t if obj1 and obj2 should
normally be regarded as the same object. This relation is left slightly
open to interpretation, but the following partial specification of
eqv? holds for all implementations of Scheme.
The eqv? procedure returns #t if:
obj1 and obj2 are both #t or both #f.
obj1 and obj2 are both symbols and
(string=? (symbol>string obj1)
(symbol>string obj2))
=> #t

Note:
This assumes that neither obj1 nor obj2 is an ``uninterned
symbol'' as alluded to in section Symbols. This report does
not presume to specify the behavior of eqv? on implementationdependent
extensions.
obj1 and obj2 are both numbers, are numerically
equal (see =, section Numbers), and are either both
exact or both inexact.
obj1 and obj2 are both characters and are the same
character according to the char=? procedure
(section Characters).
 both
obj1 and obj2 are the empty list.
obj1 and obj2 are pairs, vectors, or strings that denote the
same locations in the store (section Storage model).
obj1 and obj2 are procedures whose location tags are
equal (section Procedures).
The eqv? procedure returns #f if:
obj1 and obj2 are of different types
(section Disjointness of types).
 one of
obj1 and obj2 is #t but the other is
#f.
obj1 and obj2 are symbols but
(string=? (symbol>string obj1 )
(symbol>string obj2 ))
=> #f

 one of
obj1 and obj2 is an exact number but the other
is an inexact number.
obj1 and obj2 are numbers for which the =
procedure returns #f.
obj1 and obj2 are characters for which the char=?
procedure returns #f.
 one of
obj1 and obj2 is the empty list but the other
is not.
obj1 and obj2 are pairs, vectors, or strings that denote
distinct locations.
obj1 and obj2 are procedures that would behave differently
(return different value(s) or have different side effects) for some arguments.
(eqv? 'a 'a) => #t
(eqv? 'a 'b) => #f
(eqv? 2 2) => #t
(eqv? '() '()) => #t
(eqv? 100000000 100000000) => #t
(eqv? (cons 1 2) (cons 1 2)) => #f
(eqv? (lambda () 1)
(lambda () 2)) => #f
(eqv? #f 'nil) => #f
(let ((p (lambda (x) x)))
(eqv? p p)) => #t

The following examples illustrate cases in which the above rules do
not fully specify the behavior of eqv?. All that can be said
about such cases is that the value returned by eqv? must be a
boolean.
(eqv? "" "") => unspecified
(eqv? '#() '#()) => unspecified
(eqv? (lambda (x) x)
(lambda (x) x)) => unspecified
(eqv? (lambda (x) x)
(lambda (y) y)) => unspecified

The next set of examples shows the use of eqv? with procedures
that have local state. Gencounter must return a distinct
procedure every time, since each procedure has its own internal counter.
Genloser, however, returns equivalent procedures each time, since
the local state does not affect the value or side effects of the
procedures.
(define gencounter
(lambda ()
(let ((n 0))
(lambda () (set! n (+ n 1)) n))))
(let ((g (gencounter)))
(eqv? g g)) => #t
(eqv? (gencounter) (gencounter))
=> #f
(define genloser
(lambda ()
(let ((n 0))
(lambda () (set! n (+ n 1)) 27))))
(let ((g (genloser)))
(eqv? g g)) => #t
(eqv? (genloser) (genloser))
=> unspecified
(letrec ((f (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'both 'f)))
(g (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'both 'g))))
(eqv? f g))
=> unspecified
(letrec ((f (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'f 'both)))
(g (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'g 'both))))
(eqv? f g))
=> #f

Since it is an error to modify constant objects (those returned by
literal expressions), implementations are permitted, though not
required, to share structure between constants where appropriate. Thus
the value of eqv? on constants is sometimes
implementationdependent.
(eqv? '(a) '(a)) => unspecified
(eqv? "a" "a") => unspecified
(eqv? '(b) (cdr '(a b))) => unspecified
(let ((x '(a)))
(eqv? x x)) => #t

Rationale:
The above definition of eqv? allows implementations latitude in
their treatment of procedures and literals: implementations are free
either to detect or to fail to detect that two procedures or two literals
are equivalent to each other, and can decide whether or not to
merge representations of equivalent objects by using the same pointer or
bit pattern to represent both.

Eq? is similar to eqv? except that in some cases it is
capable of discerning distinctions finer than those detectable by
eqv?.
Eq? and eqv? are guaranteed to have the same
behavior on symbols, booleans, the empty list, pairs, procedures,
and nonempty
strings and vectors. Eq?'s behavior on numbers and characters is
implementationdependent, but it will always return either true or
false, and will return true only when eqv? would also return
true. Eq? may also behave differently from eqv? on empty
vectors and empty strings.
(eq? 'a 'a) => #t
(eq? '(a) '(a)) => unspecified
(eq? (list 'a) (list 'a)) => #f
(eq? "a" "a") => unspecified
(eq? "" "") => unspecified
(eq? '() '()) => #t
(eq? 2 2) => unspecified
(eq? #\A #\A) => unspecified
(eq? car car) => #t
(let ((n (+ 2 3)))
(eq? n n)) => unspecified
(let ((x '(a)))
(eq? x x)) => #t
(let ((x '#()))
(eq? x x)) => #t
(let ((p (lambda (x) x)))
(eq? p p)) => #t

Rationale: It will usually be possible to implement eq? much
more efficiently than eqv?, for example, as a simple pointer
comparison instead of as some more complicated operation. One reason is
that it may not be possible to compute eqv? of two numbers in
constant time, whereas eq? implemented as pointer comparison will
always finish in constant time. Eq? may be used like eqv?
in applications using procedures to implement objects with state since
it obeys the same constraints as eqv?.

equal? obj1 obj2  library procedure 
Equal? recursively compares the contents of pairs, vectors, and
strings, applying eqv? on other objects such as numbers and symbols.
A rule of thumb is that objects are generally equal? if they print
the same. Equal? may fail to terminate if its arguments are
circular data structures.
(equal? 'a 'a) => #t
(equal? '(a) '(a)) => #t
(equal? '(a (b) c)
'(a (b) c)) => #t
(equal? "abc" "abc") => #t
(equal? 2 2) => #t
(equal? (makevector 5 'a)
(makevector 5 'a)) => #t
(equal? (lambda (x) x)
(lambda (y) y)) => unspecified


Numerical computation has traditionally been neglected by the Lisp
community. Until Common Lisp there was no carefully thought out
strategy for organizing numerical computation, and with the exception of
the MacLisp system [Pitman83] little effort was made to
execute numerical code efficiently. This report recognizes the excellent work
of the Common Lisp committee and accepts many of their recommendations.
In some ways this report simplifies and generalizes their proposals in a manner
consistent with the purposes of Scheme. It is important to distinguish between the mathematical numbers, the
Scheme numbers that attempt to model them, the machine representations
used to implement the Scheme numbers, and notations used to write numbers.
This report uses the types number, complex, real,
rational, and integer to refer to both mathematical numbers
and Scheme numbers. Machine representations such as fixed point and
floating point are referred to by names such as fixnum and
flonum.
Mathematically, numbers may be arranged into a tower of subtypes
in which each level is a subset of the level above it:
number
complex
real
rational
integer

For example, 3 is an integer. Therefore 3 is also a rational,
a real, and a complex. The same is true of the Scheme numbers
that model 3. For Scheme numbers, these types are defined by the
predicates number? , complex? , real? , rational? ,
and integer? .
There is no simple relationship between a number's type and its
representation inside a computer. Although most implementations of
Scheme will offer at least two different representations of 3, these
different representations denote the same integer.
Scheme's numerical operations treat numbers as abstract data, as
independent of their representation as possible. Although an implementation
of Scheme may use fixnum, flonum, and perhaps other representations for
numbers, this should not be apparent to a casual programmer writing
simple programs. It is necessary, however, to distinguish between numbers that are
represented exactly and those that may not be. For example, indexes
into data structures must be known exactly, as must some polynomial
coefficients in a symbolic algebra system. On the other hand, the
results of measurements are inherently inexact, and irrational numbers
may be approximated by rational and therefore inexact approximations.
In order to catch uses of inexact numbers where exact numbers are
required, Scheme explicitly distinguishes exact from inexact numbers.
This distinction is orthogonal to the dimension of type.
Scheme numbers are either exact or inexact. A number is
exact if it was written as an exact constant or was derived from
exact numbers using only exact operations. A number is
inexact if it was written as an inexact constant,
if it was
derived using inexact ingredients, or if it was derived using
inexact operations. Thus inexactness is a contagious
property of a number.
If two implementations produce exact results for a
computation that did not involve inexact intermediate results,
the two ultimate results will be mathematically equivalent. This is
generally not true of computations involving inexact numbers
since approximate methods such as floating point arithmetic may be used,
but it is the duty of each implementation to make the result as close as
practical to the mathematically ideal result. Rational operations such as + should always produce
exact results when given exact arguments.
If the operation is unable to produce an exact result,
then it may either report the violation of an implementation restriction
or it may silently coerce its
result to an inexact value.
See section Implementation restrictions. With the exception of inexact>exact , the operations described in
this section must generally return inexact results when given any inexact
arguments. An operation may, however, return an exact result if it can
prove that the value of the result is unaffected by the inexactness of its
arguments. For example, multiplication of any number by an exact zero
may produce an exact zero result, even if the other argument is
inexact.
6.2.3 Implementation restrictions

Implementations of Scheme are not required to implement the whole
tower of subtypes given in section Numerical types,
but they must implement a coherent subset consistent with both the
purposes of the implementation and the spirit of the Scheme language.
For example, an implementation in which all numbers are real
may still be quite useful. Implementations may also support only a limited range of numbers of
any type, subject to the requirements of this section. The supported
range for exact numbers of any type may be different from the
supported range for inexact numbers of that type. For example,
an implementation that uses flonums to represent all its
inexact real numbers may
support a practically unbounded range of exact integers
and rationals
while limiting the range of inexact reals (and therefore
the range of inexact integers and rationals)
to the dynamic range of the flonum format.
Furthermore
the gaps between the representable inexact integers and
rationals are
likely to be very large in such an implementation as the limits of this
range are approached. An implementation of Scheme must support exact integers
throughout the range of numbers that may be used for indexes of
lists, vectors, and strings or that may result from computing the length of a
list, vector, or string. The length , vectorlength ,
and stringlength procedures must return an exact
integer, and it is an error to use anything but an exact integer as an
index. Furthermore any integer constant within the index range, if
expressed by an exact integer syntax, will indeed be read as an exact
integer, regardless of any implementation restrictions that may apply
outside this range. Finally, the procedures listed below will always
return an exact integer result provided all their arguments are exact integers
and the mathematically expected result is representable as an exact integer
within the implementation:
+  *
quotient remainder modulo
max min abs
numerator denominator gcd
lcm floor ceiling
truncate round rationalize
expt

Implementations are encouraged, but not required, to support
exact integers and exact rationals of
practically unlimited size and precision, and to implement the
above procedures and the / procedure in
such a way that they always return exact results when given exact
arguments. If one of these procedures is unable to deliver an exact
result when given exact arguments, then it may either report a
violation of an
implementation restriction or it may silently coerce its result to an
inexact number. Such a coercion may cause an error later.
An implementation may use floating point and other approximate
representation strategies for inexact numbers.
This report recommends, but does not require, that the IEEE 32bit
and 64bit floating point standards be followed by implementations that use
flonum representations, and that implementations using
other representations should match or exceed the precision achievable
using these floating point standards [IEEE]. In particular, implementations that use flonum representations
must follow these rules: A flonum result
must be represented with at least as much precision as is used to express any of
the inexact arguments to that operation. It is desirable (but not required) for
potentially inexact operations such as sqrt, when applied to exact
arguments, to produce exact answers whenever possible (for example the
square root of an exact 4 ought to be an exact 2).
If, however, an
exact number is operated upon so as to produce an inexact result
(as by sqrt), and if the result is represented as a flonum, then
the most precise flonum format available must be used; but if the result
is represented in some other way then the representation must have at least as
much precision as the most precise flonum format available. Although Scheme allows a variety of written
notations for
numbers, any particular implementation may support only some of them.
For example, an implementation in which all numbers are real
need not support the rectangular and polar notations for complex
numbers. If an implementation encounters an exact numerical constant that
it cannot represent as an exact number, then it may either report a
violation of an implementation restriction or it may silently represent the
constant by an inexact number.
6.2.4 Syntax of numerical constants

The syntax of the written representations for numbers is described formally in
section Lexical structure. Note that case is not significant in numerical
constants.
A number may be written in binary, octal, decimal, or
hexadecimal by the use of a radix prefix. The radix prefixes are #b (binary), #o (octal), #d (decimal), and #x (hexadecimal). With
no radix prefix, a number is assumed to be expressed in decimal. A
numerical constant may be specified to be either exact or
inexact by a prefix. The prefixes are #e
for exact, and #i for inexact. An exactness
prefix may appear before or after any radix prefix that is used. If
the written representation of a number has no exactness prefix, the
constant may be either inexact or exact. It is
inexact if it contains a decimal point, an
exponent, or a ``#'' character in the place of a digit,
otherwise it is exact.
In systems with inexact numbers
of varying precisions it may be useful to specify
the precision of a constant. For this purpose, numerical constants
may be written with an exponent marker that indicates the
desired precision of the inexact
representation. The letters s, f,
d, and l specify the use of short , single ,
double , and long precision, respectively. (When fewer
than four internal
inexact
representations exist, the four size
specifications are mapped onto those available. For example, an
implementation with two internal representations may map short and
single together and long and double together.) In addition, the
exponent marker e specifies the default precision for the
implementation. The default precision has at least as much precision
as double , but
implementations may wish to allow this default to be set by the user.
3.14159265358979F0
Round to single  3.141593
0.6L0
Extend to long  .600000000000000

6.2.5 Numerical operations

The reader is referred to section Entry format for a summary
of the naming conventions used to specify restrictions on the types of
arguments to numerical routines.
The examples used in this section assume that any numerical constant written
using an exact notation is indeed represented as an exact
number. Some examples also assume that certain numerical constants written
using an inexact notation can be represented without loss of
accuracy; the inexact constants were chosen so that this is
likely to be true in implementations that use flonums to represent
inexact numbers.
These numerical type predicates can be applied to any kind of
argument, including nonnumbers. They return #t if the object is
of the named type, and otherwise they return #f.
In general, if a type predicate is true of a number then all higher
type predicates are also true of that number. Consequently, if a type
predicate is false of a number, then all lower type predicates are
also false of that number.
If z is an inexact complex number, then (real? z ) is true if
and only if (zero? (imagpart z )) is true. If x is an inexact
real number, then (integer? x ) is true if and only if
(= x (round x )).
(complex? 3+4i) => #t
(complex? 3) => #t
(real? 3) => #t
(real? 2.5+0.0i) => #t
(real? #e1e10) => #t
(rational? 6/10) => #t
(rational? 6/3) => #t
(integer? 3+0i) => #t
(integer? 3.0) => #t
(integer? 8/4) => #t

Note:
The behavior of these type predicates on inexact numbers
is unreliable, since any inaccuracy may affect the result.
Note:
In many implementations the rational? procedure will be the same
as real? , and the complex? procedure will be the same as
number? , but unusual implementations may be able to represent
some irrational numbers exactly or may extend the number system to
support some kind of noncomplex numbers.

These numerical predicates provide tests for the exactness of a
quantity. For any Scheme number, precisely one of these predicates
is true.

<= x1 x2 x3 ...,  procedure 
>= x1 x2 x3 ...,  procedure 
These procedures return #t if their arguments are (respectively):
equal, monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing,
monotonically nondecreasing, or monotonically nonincreasing.
These predicates are required to be transitive.
Note:
The traditional implementations of these predicates in Lisplike
languages are not transitive.
Note:
While it is not an error to compare inexact numbers using these
predicates, the results may be unreliable because a small inaccuracy
may affect the result; this is especially true of = and zero? .
When in doubt, consult a numerical analyst.

positive? x  library procedure 
negative? x  library procedure 
These numerical predicates test a number for a particular property,
returning #t or #f. See note above.

max x1 x2 ...,  library procedure 
min x1 x2 ...,  library procedure 
These procedures return the maximum or minimum of their arguments.
(max 3 4) => 4 ; exact
(max 3.9 4) => 4.0 ; inexact

Note:
If any argument is inexact, then the result will also be inexact (unless
the procedure can prove that the inaccuracy is not large enough to affect the
result, which is possible only in unusual implementations). If min or
max is used to compare numbers of mixed exactness, and the numerical
value of the result cannot be represented as an inexact number without loss of
accuracy, then the procedure may report a violation of an implementation
restriction.

These procedures return the sum or product of their arguments.
(+ 3 4) => 7
(+ 3) => 3
(+) => 0
(* 4) => 4
(*) => 1


 z1 z2 ...,  optional procedure 
/ z1 z2 ...,  optional procedure 
With two or more arguments, these procedures return the difference or
quotient of their arguments, associating to the left. With one argument,
however, they return the additive or multiplicative inverse of their argument.
( 3 4) => 1
( 3 4 5) => 6
( 3) => 3
(/ 3 4 5) => 3/20
(/ 3) => 1/3


Abs returns the absolute value of its argument.

These procedures implement numbertheoretic (integer)
division. n2 should be nonzero. All three procedures
return integers. If n1 /n2 is an integer:
(quotient n1 n2 ) => n1 /n2
(remainder n1 n2 ) => 0
(modulo n1 n2 ) => 0

If n1 /n2 is not an integer:
(quotient n1 n2 ) => n_q
(remainder n1 n2 ) => n_r
(modulo n1 n2 ) => n_m

where n_q is n1 /n2 rounded towards zero,
0 < n_r  < n2 , 0 < n_m  < n2 ,
n_r and n_m differ from n1 by a multiple of n2 ,
n_r has the same sign as n1 , and
n_m has the same sign as n2 .
From this we can conclude that for integers n1 and n2 with
n2 not equal to 0,
(= n1 (+ (* n2 (quotient n1 n2 ))
(remainder n1 n2 )))
=> #t

provided all numbers involved in that computation are exact.
(modulo 13 4) => 1
(remainder 13 4) => 1
(modulo 13 4) => 3
(remainder 13 4) => 1
(modulo 13 4) => 3
(remainder 13 4) => 1
(modulo 13 4) => 1
(remainder 13 4) => 1
(remainder 13 4.0) => 1.0 ; inexact


gcd n1 ...,  library procedure 
lcm n1 ...,  library procedure 
These procedures return the greatest common divisor or least common
multiple of their arguments. The result is always nonnegative.
(gcd 32 36) => 4
(gcd) => 0
(lcm 32 36) => 288
(lcm 32.0 36) => 288.0 ; inexact
(lcm) => 1


These procedures return the numerator or denominator of their
argument; the result is computed as if the argument was represented as
a fraction in lowest terms. The denominator is always positive. The
denominator of 0 is defined to be 1.
(numerator (/ 6 4)) => 3
(denominator (/ 6 4)) => 2
(denominator
(exact>inexact (/ 6 4))) => 2.0


These procedures return integers.
Floor returns the largest integer not larger than x .
Ceiling returns the smallest integer not smaller than x .
Truncate returns the integer closest to x whose absolute
value is not larger than the absolute value of x . Round returns the
closest integer to x , rounding to even when x is halfway between two
integers.
Rationale:
Round rounds to even for consistency with the default rounding
mode specified by the IEEE floating point standard.
Note:
If the argument to one of these procedures is inexact, then the result
will also be inexact. If an exact value is needed, the
result should be passed to the inexact>exact procedure.
(floor 4.3) => 5.0
(ceiling 4.3) => 4.0
(truncate 4.3) => 4.0
(round 4.3) => 4.0
(floor 3.5) => 3.0
(ceiling 3.5) => 4.0
(truncate 3.5) => 3.0
(round 3.5) => 4.0 ; inexact
(round 7/2) => 4 ; exact
(round 7) => 7


rationalize x y  library procedure 
Rationalize returns the simplest rational number
differing from x by no more than y . A rational number r_1 is
simpler than another rational number
r_2 if r_1 = p_1/q_1 and r_2 = p_2/q_2 (in lowest terms) and p_1<= p_2 and q_1 <= q_2. Thus 3/5 is simpler than 4/7.
Although not all rationals are comparable in this ordering (consider 2/7
and 3/5) any interval contains a rational number that is simpler than
every other rational number in that interval (the simpler 2/5 lies
between 2/7 and 3/5). Note that 0 = 0/1 is the simplest rational of
all.
(rationalize
(inexact>exact .3) 1/10) => 1/3 ; exact
(rationalize .3 1/10) => #i1/3 ; inexact


These procedures are part of every implementation that supports
general
real numbers; they compute the usual transcendental functions. Log
computes the natural logarithm of z (not the base ten logarithm).
Asin, acos, and atan compute arcsine (sin^1),
arccosine (cos^1), and arctangent (tan^1), respectively.
The twoargument variant of atan computes (angle
(makerectangular x y )) (see below), even in implementations
that don't support general complex numbers.
In general, the mathematical functions log, arcsine, arccosine, and
arctangent are multiply defined.
The value of log z is defined to be the one whose imaginary
part lies in the range from pi (exclusive) to pi (inclusive).
log 0 is undefined.
With log defined this way, the values of sin^1 z, cos^1 z,
and tan^1 z are according to the following formulae:
sin^1 z = i log (i z + sqrt1  z^2)
cos^1 z = pi / 2  sin^1 z
tan^1 z = (log (1 + i z)  log (1  i z)) / (2 i)
The above specification follows [CLtL], which in turn
cites [Penfield81]; refer to these sources for more detailed
discussion of branch cuts, boundary conditions, and implementation of
these functions. When it is possible these procedures produce a real
result from a real argument.

Returns the principal square root of z . The result will have
either positive real part, or zero real part and nonnegative imaginary
part.

Returns z1 raised to the power z2 . For z_1 ~= 0
z_1^z_2 = e^z_2 log z_1
0^z is 1 if z = 0 and 0 otherwise.

makerectangular x1 x2  procedure 
makepolar x3 x4  procedure 
These procedures are part of every implementation that supports
general
complex numbers. Suppose x1 , x2 , x3 , and x4 are
real numbers and z is a complex number such that
z = x1 + x2 i = x3 . e^i x4
Then
(makerectangular x1 x2 ) => z
(makepolar x3 x4 ) => z
(realpart z ) => x1
(imagpart z ) => x2
(magnitude z ) => x3 
(angle z ) => x_angle

where pi < x_angle <= pi with x_angle = x4 + 2pi n
for some integer n.
Rationale:
Magnitude is the same as abs for a real argument,
but abs must be present in all implementations, whereas
magnitude need only be present in implementations that support
general complex numbers.

exact>inexact z  procedure 
inexact>exact z  procedure 
Exact>inexact returns an inexact representation of z .
The value returned is the
inexact number that is numerically closest to the argument.
If an exact argument has no reasonably close inexact equivalent,
then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.
Inexact>exact returns an exact representation of
z . The value returned is the exact number that is numerically
closest to the argument.
If an inexact argument has no reasonably close exact equivalent,
then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.
These procedures implement the natural onetoone correspondence between
exact and inexact integers throughout an
implementationdependent range. See section Implementation restrictions.

6.2.6 Numerical input and output

number>string z  procedure 
number>string z radix  procedure 
Radix must be an exact integer, either 2, 8, 10, or 16. If omitted,
radix defaults to 10.
The procedure number>string takes a
number and a radix and returns as a string an external representation of
the given number in the given radix such that
(let ((number number )
(radix radix ))
(eqv? number
(string>number (number>string number
radix)
radix)))

is true. It is an error if no possible result makes this expression true.
If z is inexact, the radix is 10, and the above expression
can be satisfied by a result that contains a decimal point,
then the result contains a decimal point and is expressed using the
minimum number of digits (exclusive of exponent and trailing
zeroes) needed to make the above expression
true [howtoprint], [howtoread];
otherwise the format of the result is unspecified.
The result returned by number>string
never contains an explicit radix prefix.
Note:
The error case can occur only when z is not a complex number
or is a complex number with a nonrational real or imaginary part.
Rationale:
If z is an inexact number represented using flonums, and
the radix is 10, then the above expression is normally satisfied by
a result containing a decimal point. The unspecified case
allows for infinities, NaNs, and nonflonum representations.

string>number string  procedure 
string>number string radix  procedure 
Returns a number of the maximally precise representation expressed by the
given string . Radix must be an exact integer, either 2, 8, 10,
or 16. If supplied, radix is a default radix that may be overridden
by an explicit radix prefix in string (e.g. "#o177"). If radix
is not supplied, then the default radix is 10. If string is not
a syntactically valid notation for a number, then string>number
returns #f.
(string>number "100") => 100
(string>number "100" 16) => 256
(string>number "1e2") => 100.0
(string>number "15##") => 1500.0

Note:
The domain of string>number may be restricted by implementations
in the following ways. String>number is permitted to return
#f whenever string contains an explicit radix prefix.
If all numbers supported by an implementation are real, then
string>number is permitted to return #f whenever
string uses the polar or rectangular notations for complex
numbers. If all numbers are integers, then
string>number may return #f whenever
the fractional notation is used. If all numbers are exact, then
string>number may return #f whenever
an exponent marker or explicit exactness prefix is used, or if
a # appears in place of a digit. If all inexact
numbers are integers, then
string>number may return #f whenever
a decimal point is used.

This section describes operations on some of Scheme's nonnumeric data types:
booleans, pairs, lists, symbols, characters, strings and vectors.
The standard boolean objects for true and false are written as
#t and #f. What really
matters, though, are the objects that the Scheme conditional expressions
( if, cond, and, or, do) treat as
true or false. The phrase ``a true value''
(or sometimes just ``true'') means any object treated as true by the
conditional expressions, and the phrase ``a false value'' (or
``false'') means any object treated as false by the conditional expressions. Of all the standard Scheme values, only #f
counts as false in conditional expressions.
Except for #f,
all standard Scheme values, including #t,
pairs, the empty list, symbols, numbers, strings, vectors, and procedures,
count as true.
Note:
Programmers accustomed to other dialects of Lisp should be aware that
Scheme distinguishes both #f and the empty list
from the symbol nil .
Boolean constants evaluate to themselves, so they do not need to be quoted
in programs.
#t => #t
#f => #f
'#f => #f

Not returns #t if obj is false, and returns
#f otherwise.
(not #t) => #f
(not 3) => #f
(not (list 3)) => #f
(not #f) => #t
(not '()) => #f
(not (list)) => #f
(not 'nil) => #f


boolean? obj  library procedure 
Boolean? returns #t if obj is either #t or
#f and returns #f otherwise.
(boolean? #f) => #t
(boolean? 0) => #f
(boolean? '()) => #f


A "pair" (sometimes called a "dotted pair") is a
record structure with two fields called the car and cdr fields (for
historical reasons). Pairs are created by the procedure cons.
The car and cdr fields are accessed by the procedures car and
cdr. The car and cdr fields are assigned by the procedures
setcar! and setcdr!. Pairs are used primarily to represent lists. A list can
be defined recursively as either the empty list or a pair whose
cdr is a list. More precisely, the set of lists is defined as the smallest
set X such that  The empty list is in
X .
 If
list is in X , then any pair whose cdr field contains
list is also in X .
The objects in the car fields of successive pairs of a list are the
elements of the list. For example, a twoelement list is a pair whose car
is the first element and whose cdr is a pair whose car is the second element
and whose cdr is the empty list. The length of a list is the number of
elements, which is the same as the number of pairs. The empty list is a special object of its own type
(it is not a pair); it has no elements and its length is zero. Note:
The above definitions imply that all lists have finite length and are
terminated by the empty list.
The most general notation (external representation) for Scheme pairs is
the ``dotted'' notation (c1 .: c2 ) where
c1 is the value of the car field and c2 is the value of the
cdr field. For example (4 .: 5) is a pair whose car is 4 and whose
cdr is 5. Note that (4 .: 5) is the external representation of a
pair, not an expression that evaluates to a pair. A more streamlined notation can be used for lists: the elements of the
list are simply enclosed in parentheses and separated by spaces. The
empty list is written () . For example,
and
(a . (b . (c . (d . (e . ())))))

are equivalent notations for a list of symbols. A chain of pairs not ending in the empty list is called an
"improper list". Note that an improper list is not a list.
The list and dotted notations can be combined to represent
improper lists:
is equivalent to
Whether a given pair is a list depends upon what is stored in the cdr
field. When the setcdr! procedure is used, an object can be a
list one moment and not the next:
(define x (list 'a 'b 'c))
(define y x)
y => (a b c)
(list? y) => #t
(setcdr! x 4) => unspecified
x => (a . 4)
(eqv? x y) => #t
y => (a . 4)
(list? y) => #f
(setcdr! x x) => unspecified
(list? x) => #f

Within literal expressions and representations of objects read by the
read procedure, the forms '<datum>,
`<datum>, ,<datum>, and
,@<datum> denote twoelement lists whose first elements are
the symbols quote , quasiquote , unquote , and
unquotesplicing , respectively. The second element in each case
is <datum>. This convention is supported so that arbitrary Scheme
programs may be represented as lists.
That is, according to Scheme's grammar, every
<expression> is also a <datum> (see section External representation).
Among other things, this permits the use of the read procedure to
parse Scheme programs. See section External representations.
Pair? returns #t if obj is a pair, and otherwise
returns #f.
(pair? '(a . b)) => #t
(pair? '(a b c)) => #t
(pair? '()) => #f
(pair? '#(a b)) => #f


Returns a newly allocated pair whose car is obj1 and whose cdr is
obj2 . The pair is guaranteed to be different (in the sense of
eqv?) from every existing object.
(cons 'a '()) => (a)
(cons '(a) '(b c d)) => ((a) b c d)
(cons "a" '(b c)) => ("a" b c)
(cons 'a 3) => (a . 3)
(cons '(a b) 'c) => ((a b) . c)


Returns the contents of the car field of pair . Note that it is an
error to take the car of the empty list.
(car '(a b c)) => a
(car '((a) b c d)) => (a)
(car '(1 . 2)) => 1
(car '()) => error


Returns the contents of the cdr field of pair .
Note that it is an error to take the cdr of the empty list.
(cdr '((a) b c d)) => (b c d)
(cdr '(1 . 2)) => 2
(cdr '()) => error


setcar! pair obj  procedure 
Stores obj in the car field of pair .
The value returned by setcar! is unspecified.
(define (f) (list 'notaconstantlist))
(define (g) '(constantlist))
(setcar! (f) 3) => unspecified
(setcar! (g) 3) => error


setcdr! pair obj  procedure 
Stores obj in the cdr field of pair .
The value returned by setcdr! is unspecified.

caar pair  library procedure 
cadr pair  library procedure 
cdddar pair  library procedure 
cddddr pair  library procedure 
These procedures are compositions of car and cdr, where
for example caddr could be defined by
(define caddr (lambda (x) (car (cdr (cdr x))))).

Arbitrary compositions, up to four deep, are provided. There are
twentyeight of these procedures in all.

null? obj  library procedure 
Returns #t if obj is the empty list,
otherwise returns #f.

list? obj  library procedure 
Returns #t if obj is a list, otherwise returns #f.
By definition, all lists have finite length and are terminated by
the empty list.
(list? '(a b c)) => #t
(list? '()) => #t
(list? '(a . b)) => #f
(let ((x (list 'a)))
(setcdr! x x)
(list? x)) => #f


list obj ...,  library procedure 
Returns a newly allocated list of its arguments.
(list 'a (+ 3 4) 'c) => (a 7 c)
(list) => ()


length list  library procedure 
Returns the length of list .
(length '(a b c)) => 3
(length '(a (b) (c d e))) => 3
(length '()) => 0


append list ...,  library procedure 
Returns a list consisting of the elements of the first list
followed by the elements of the other list s.
(append '(x) '(y)) => (x y)
(append '(a) '(b c d)) => (a b c d)
(append '(a (b)) '((c))) => (a (b) (c))

The resulting list is always newly allocated, except that it shares
structure with the last list argument. The last argument may
actually be any object; an improper list results if the last argument is not a
proper list.
(append '(a b) '(c . d)) => (a b c . d)
(append '() 'a) => a


reverse list  library procedure 
Returns a newly allocated list consisting of the elements of list
in reverse order.
(reverse '(a b c)) => (c b a)
(reverse '(a (b c) d (e (f))))
=> ((e (f)) d (b c) a)


listtail list k  library procedure 
Returns the sublist of list obtained by omitting the first k
elements. It is an error if list has fewer than k elements.
Listtail could be defined by
(define listtail
(lambda (x k)
(if (zero? k)
x
(listtail (cdr x) ( k 1)))))


listref list k  library procedure 
Returns the k th element of list . (This is the same
as the car of (listtail list k ).)
It is an error if list has fewer than k elements.
(listref '(a b c d) 2) => c
(listref '(a b c d)
(inexact>exact (round 1.8)))
=> c


memq obj list  library procedure 
memv obj list  library procedure 
member obj list  library procedure 
These procedures return the first sublist of list whose car is
obj , where the sublists of list are the nonempty lists
returned by (listtail list k ) for k less
than the length of list . If
obj does not occur in list , then #f (not the empty list) is
returned. Memq uses eq? to compare obj with the elements of
list , while memv uses eqv? and member uses equal?.
(memq 'a '(a b c)) => (a b c)
(memq 'b '(a b c)) => (b c)
(memq 'a '(b c d)) => #f
(memq (list 'a) '(b (a) c)) => #f
(member (list 'a)
'(b (a) c)) => ((a) c)
(memq 101 '(100 101 102)) => unspecified
(memv 101 '(100 101 102)) => (101 102)


assq obj alist  library procedure 
assv obj alist  library procedure 
assoc obj alist  library procedure 
Alist (for ``association list'') must be a list of
pairs. These procedures find the first pair in alist whose car field is obj ,
and returns that pair. If no pair in alist has obj as its
car, then #f (not the empty list) is returned. Assq uses
eq? to compare obj with the car fields of the pairs in alist ,
while assv uses eqv? and assoc uses equal?.
(define e '((a 1) (b 2) (c 3)))
(assq 'a e) => (a 1)
(assq 'b e) => (b 2)
(assq 'd e) => #f
(assq (list 'a) '(((a)) ((b)) ((c))))
=> #f
(assoc (list 'a) '(((a)) ((b)) ((c))))
=> ((a))
(assq 5 '((2 3) (5 7) (11 13)))
=> unspecified
(assv 5 '((2 3) (5 7) (11 13)))
=> (5 7)

Rationale:
Although they are ordinarily used as predicates,
memq, memv, member, assq, assv, and assoc do not
have question marks in their names because they return useful values rather
than just #t or #f.

Symbols are objects whose usefulness rests on the fact that two
symbols are identical (in the sense of eqv?) if and only if their
names are spelled the same way. This is exactly the property needed to
represent identifiers in programs, and so most
implementations of Scheme use them internally for that purpose. Symbols
are useful for many other applications; for instance, they may be used
the way enumerated values are used in Pascal. The rules for writing a symbol are exactly the same as the rules for
writing an identifier; see sections Identifiers
and Lexical structure. It is guaranteed that any symbol that has been returned as part of
a literal expression, or read using the read procedure, and
subsequently written out using the write procedure, will read back
in as the identical symbol (in the sense of eqv?). The
string>symbol procedure, however, can create symbols for
which this write/read invariance may not hold because their names
contain special characters or letters in the nonstandard case. Note:
Some implementations of Scheme have a feature known as ``slashification''
in order to guarantee write/read invariance for all symbols, but
historically the most important use of this feature has been to
compensate for the lack of a string data type.
Some implementations also have ``uninterned symbols'', which
defeat write/read invariance even in implementations with slashification,
and also generate exceptions to the rule that two symbols are the same
if and only if their names are spelled the same.
Returns #t if obj is a symbol, otherwise returns #f.
(symbol? 'foo) => #t
(symbol? (car '(a b))) => #t
(symbol? "bar") => #f
(symbol? 'nil) => #t
(symbol? '()) => #f
(symbol? #f) => #f


symbol>string symbol  procedure 
Returns the name of symbol as a string. If the symbol was part of
an object returned as the value of a literal expression
(section Literal expressions) or by a call to the read procedure,
and its name contains alphabetic characters, then the string returned
will contain characters in the implementation's preferred standard
casesome implementations will prefer upper case, others lower case.
If the symbol was returned by string>symbol, the case of
characters in the string returned will be the same as the case in the
string that was passed to string>symbol. It is an error
to apply mutation procedures like stringset! to strings returned
by this procedure.
The following examples assume that the implementation's standard case is
lower case:
(symbol>string 'flyingfish)
=> "flyingfish"
(symbol>string 'Martin) => "martin"
(symbol>string
(string>symbol "Malvina"))
=> "Malvina"


string>symbol string  procedure 
Returns the symbol whose name is string . This procedure can
create symbols with names containing special characters or letters in
the nonstandard case, but it is usually a bad idea to create such
symbols because in some implementations of Scheme they cannot be read as
themselves. See symbol>string.
The following examples assume that the implementation's standard case is
lower case:
(eq? 'mISSISSIppi 'mississippi)
=> #t
(string>symbol "mISSISSIppi")
=>
the symbol with name "mISSISSIppi"
(eq? 'bitBlt (string>symbol "bitBlt"))
=> #f
(eq? 'JollyWog
(string>symbol
(symbol>string 'JollyWog)))
=> #t
(string=? "K. Harper, M.D."
(symbol>string
(string>symbol "K. Harper, M.D.")))
=> #t


Characters are objects that represent printed characters such as
letters and digits.
Characters are written using the notation #\<character>
or #\<character name>.
For example:  #\a

 ; lower case letter
 #\A

 ; upper case letter
 #\(

 ; left parenthesis
 #\

 ; the space character
 #\space

 ; the preferred way to write a space
 #\newline

 ; the newline character
Case is significant in #\<character>, but not in
#\<character name>.
If <character> in
#\<character> is alphabetic, then the character
following <character> must be a delimiter character such as a
space or parenthesis. This rule resolves the ambiguous case where, for
example, the sequence of characters `` #\ space''
could be taken to be either a representation of the space character or a
representation of the character `` #\ s'' followed
by a representation of the symbol `` pace.''
Characters written in the #\ notation are selfevaluating.
That is, they do not have to be quoted in programs.
Some of the procedures that operate on characters ignore the
difference between upper case and lower case. The procedures that
ignore case have ``ci'' (for ``case
insensitive'') embedded in their names.
Returns #t if obj is a character, otherwise returns #f.

char=? char1 char2  procedure 
char<? char1 char2  procedure 
char>? char1 char2  procedure 
char<=? char1 char2  procedure 
char>=? char1 char2  procedure 
These procedures impose a total ordering on the set of characters. It
is guaranteed that under this ordering:
 The upper case characters are in order. For example, (char<? #\A #\B) returns #t.
 The lower case characters are in order. For example, (char<? #\a #\b) returns #t.
 The digits are in order. For example, (char<? #\0 #\9) returns #t.
 Either all the digits precede all the upper case letters, or vice versa.
 Either all the digits precede all the lower case letters, or vice versa.
Some implementations may generalize these procedures to take more than
two arguments, as with the corresponding numerical predicates.

charci=? char1 char2  library procedure 
charci<? char1 char2  library procedure 
charci>? char1 char2  library procedure 
charci<=? char1 char2  library procedure 
charci>=? char1 char2  library procedure 
These procedures are similar to char=? et cetera, but they treat
upper case and lower case letters as the same. For example, (charci=? #\A #\a) returns #t. Some
implementations may generalize these procedures to take more than two
arguments, as with the corresponding numerical predicates.

charalphabetic? char  library procedure 
charnumeric? char  library procedure 
charwhitespace? char  library procedure 
charuppercase? letter  library procedure 
charlowercase? letter  library procedure 
These procedures return #t if their arguments are alphabetic,
numeric, whitespace, upper case, or lower case characters, respectively,
otherwise they return #f. The following remarks, which are specific to
the ASCII character set, are intended only as a guide: The alphabetic characters
are the 52 upper and lower case letters. The numeric characters are the
ten decimal digits. The whitespace characters are space, tab, line
feed, form feed, and carriage return.

char>integer char  procedure 
Given a character, char>integer returns an exact integer
representation of the character. Given an exact integer that is the image of
a character under char>integer, integer>char
returns that character. These procedures implement orderpreserving isomorphisms
between the set of characters under the char<=? ordering and some
subset of the integers under the <= ordering. That is, if
(char<=? a b ) => #t and (<= x y ) => #t

and x and y are in the domain of
integer>char, then
(<= (char>integer a )
(char>integer b )) => #t
(char<=? (integer>char x )
(integer>char y )) => #t


charupcase char  library procedure 
chardowncase char  library procedure 
These procedures return a character char2 such that (charci=? char char2 ). In addition, if char is
alphabetic, then the result of charupcase is upper case and the
result of chardowncase is lower case.

Strings are sequences of characters.
Strings are written as sequences of characters enclosed within doublequotes
( "). A doublequote can be written inside a string only by escaping
it with a backslash (\), as in
"The word \"recursion\" has many meanings."

A backslash can be written inside a string only by escaping it with another
backslash. Scheme does not specify the effect of a backslash within a
string that is not followed by a doublequote or backslash. A string constant may continue from one line to the next, but
the exact contents of such a string are unspecified.
The length of a string is the number of characters that it
contains. This number is an exact, nonnegative integer that is fixed when the
string is created. The "valid indexes" of a string are the
exact nonnegative integers less than the length of the string. The first
character of a string has index 0, the second has index 1, and so on. In phrases such as ``the characters of string beginning with
index start and ending with index end ,'' it is understood
that the index start is inclusive and the index end is
exclusive. Thus if start and end are the same index, a null
substring is referred to, and if start is zero and end is
the length of string , then the entire string is referred to. Some of the procedures that operate on strings ignore the
difference between upper and lower case. The versions that ignore case
have ``ci'' (for ``case insensitive'') embedded in their
names.
Returns #t if obj is a string, otherwise returns #f.

makestring k char  procedure 
Makestring returns a newly allocated string of
length k . If char is given, then all elements of the string
are initialized to char , otherwise the contents of the
string are unspecified.

string char ...,  library procedure 
Returns a newly allocated string composed of the arguments.

stringlength string  procedure 
Returns the number of characters in the given string .

stringref string k  procedure 
k must be a valid index of string .
Stringref returns character k of string using zeroorigin indexing.

stringset! string k char  procedure 
k must be a valid index of string
.
Stringset! stores char in element k of string
and returns an unspecified value.
(define (f) (makestring 3 #\*))
(define (g) "***")
(stringset! (f) 0 #\?) => unspecified
(stringset! (g) 0 #\?) => error
(stringset! (symbol>string 'immutable)
0
#\?) => error


string=? string1 string2  library procedure 
stringci=? string1 string2  library procedure 
Returns #t if the two strings are the same length and contain the same
characters in the same positions, otherwise returns #f.
Stringci=? treats
upper and lower case letters as though they were the same character, but
string=? treats upper and lower case as distinct characters.

string<? string1 string2  library procedure 
string>? string1 string2  library procedure 
string<=? string1 string2  library procedure 
string>=? string1 string2  library procedure 
stringci<? string1 string2  library procedure 
stringci>? string1 string2  library procedure 
stringci<=? string1 string2  library procedure 
stringci>=? string1 string2  library procedure 
These procedures are the lexicographic extensions to strings of the
corresponding orderings on characters. For example, string<? is
the lexicographic ordering on strings induced by the ordering
char<? on characters. If two strings differ in length but
are the same up to the length of the shorter string, the shorter string
is considered to be lexicographically less than the longer string.
Implementations may generalize these and the string=? and
stringci=? procedures to take more than two arguments, as with
the corresponding numerical predicates.

substring string start end  library procedure 
String must be a string, and start and end
must be exact integers satisfying
0 <= start <= end <= (stringlength string ).
Substring returns a newly allocated string formed from the characters of
string beginning with index start (inclusive) and ending with index
end (exclusive).

stringappend string ...,  library procedure 
Returns a newly allocated string whose characters form the concatenation of the
given strings.

string>list string  library procedure 
list>string list  library procedure 
String>list returns a newly allocated list of the
characters that make up the given string. List>string
returns a newly allocated string formed from the characters in the list
list , which must be a list of characters. String>list
and list>string are
inverses so far as equal? is concerned.

stringcopy string  library procedure 
Returns a newly allocated copy of the given string .

stringfill! string char  library procedure 
Stores char in every element of the given string and returns an
unspecified value.

Vectors are heterogenous structures whose elements are indexed
by integers. A vector typically occupies less space than a list
of the same length, and the average time required to access a randomly
chosen element is typically less for the vector than for the list. The length of a vector is the number of elements that it
contains. This number is a nonnegative integer that is fixed when the
vector is created. The valid indexes of a
vector are the exact nonnegative integers less than the length of the
vector. The first element in a vector is indexed by zero, and the last
element is indexed by one less than the length of the vector. Vectors are written using the notation #(obj ...,).
For example, a vector of length 3 containing the number zero in element
0, the list (2 2 2 2) in element 1, and the string "Anna" in
element 2 can be written as following:
Note that this is the external representation of a vector, not an
expression evaluating to a vector. Like list constants, vector
constants must be quoted:
'#(0 (2 2 2 2) "Anna")
=> #(0 (2 2 2 2) "Anna")

Returns #t if obj is a vector, otherwise returns #f.

makevector k fill  procedure 
Returns a newly allocated vector of k elements. If a second
argument is given, then each element is initialized to fill .
Otherwise the initial contents of each element is unspecified.

vector obj ...,  library procedure 
Returns a newly allocated vector whose elements contain the given
arguments. Analogous to list.
(vector 'a 'b 'c) => #(a b c)


vectorlength vector  procedure 
Returns the number of elements in vector as an exact integer.

vectorref vector k  procedure 
k must be a valid index of vector .
Vectorref returns the contents of element k of
vector .
(vectorref '#(1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21)
5)
=> 8
(vectorref '#(1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21)
(let ((i (round (* 2 (acos 1)))))
(if (inexact? i)
(inexact>exact i)
i)))
=> 13


vectorset! vector k obj  procedure 
k must be a valid index of vector .
Vectorset! stores obj in element k of vector .
The value returned by vectorset! is unspecified.
(let ((vec (vector 0 '(2 2 2 2) "Anna")))
(vectorset! vec 1 '("Sue" "Sue"))
vec)
=> #(0 ("Sue" "Sue") "Anna")
(vectorset! '#(0 1 2) 1 "doe")
=> error ; constant vector


vector>list vector  library procedure 
list>vector list  library procedure 
Vector>list returns a newly allocated list of the objects contained
in the elements of vector . List>vector returns a newly
created vector initialized to the elements of the list list .
(vector>list '#(dah dah didah))
=> (dah dah didah)
(list>vector '(dididit dah))
=> #(dididit dah)


vectorfill! vector fill  library procedure 
Stores fill in every element of vector .
The value returned by vectorfill! is unspecified.

This chapter describes various primitive procedures which control the
flow of program execution in special ways.
The procedure? predicate is also described here.
Returns #t if obj is a procedure, otherwise returns #f.
(procedure? car) => #t
(procedure? 'car) => #f
(procedure? (lambda (x) (* x x)))
=> #t
(procedure? '(lambda (x) (* x x)))
=> #f
(callwithcurrentcontinuation procedure?)
=> #t


apply proc arg1 ... args  procedure 
Proc must be a procedure and args must be a list.
Calls proc with the elements of the list
(append (list arg1 ...,) args ) as the actual
arguments.
(apply + (list 3 4)) => 7
(define compose
(lambda (f g)
(lambda args
(f (apply g args)))))
((compose sqrt *) 12 75) => 30


map proc list1 list2 ...,  library procedure 
The list s must be lists, and proc must be a
procedure taking as many arguments as there are lists
and returning a single value. If more
than one list is given, then they must all be the same length.
Map applies proc elementwise to the elements of the
list s and returns a list of the results, in order.
The dynamic order in which proc is applied to the elements of the
list s is unspecified.
(map cadr '((a b) (d e) (g h)))
=> (b e h)
(map (lambda (n) (expt n n))
'(1 2 3 4 5))
=> (1 4 27 256 3125)
(map + '(1 2 3) '(4 5 6)) => (5 7 9)
(let ((count 0))
(map (lambda (ignored)
(set! count (+ count 1))
count)
'(a b))) => (1 2) or (2 1)


foreach proc list1 list2 ...,  library procedure 
The arguments to foreach are like the arguments to map, but
foreach calls proc for its side effects rather than for its
values. Unlike map, foreach is guaranteed to call proc on
the elements of the list s in order from the first element(s) to the
last, and the value returned by foreach is unspecified.
(let ((v (makevector 5)))
(foreach (lambda (i)
(vectorset! v i (* i i)))
'(0 1 2 3 4))
v) => #(0 1 4 9 16)


force promise  library procedure 
Forces the value of promise (see delay ,
section Delayed evaluation). If no value has been computed for
the promise, then a value is computed and returned. The value of the
promise is cached (or ``memoized'') so that if it is forced a second
time, the previously computed value is returned.
(force (delay (+ 1 2))) => 3
(let ((p (delay (+ 1 2))))
(list (force p) (force p)))
=> (3 3)
(define astream
(letrec ((next
(lambda (n)
(cons n (delay (next (+ n 1)))))))
(next 0)))
(define head car)
(define tail
(lambda (stream) (force (cdr stream))))
(head (tail (tail astream)))
=> 2

Force and delay are mainly intended for programs written in
functional style. The following examples should not be considered to
illustrate good programming style, but they illustrate the property that
only one value is computed for a promise, no matter how many times it is
forced.
(define count 0)
(define p
(delay (begin (set! count (+ count 1))
(if (> count x)
count
(force p)))))
(define x 5)
p => a promise
(force p) => 6
p => a promise, still
(begin (set! x 10)
(force p)) => 6

Here is a possible implementation of delay and force.
Promises are implemented here as procedures of no arguments,
and force simply calls its argument:
(define force
(lambda (object)
(object)))

We define the expression
to have the same meaning as the procedure call
(makepromise (lambda () <expression>))

as follows
(definesyntax delay
(syntaxrules ()
((delay expression)
(makepromise (lambda () expression))))),

where makepromise is defined as follows:
(define makepromise
(lambda (proc)
(let ((resultready? #f)
(result #f))
(lambda ()
(if resultready?
result
(let ((x (proc)))
(if resultready?
result
(begin (set! resultready? #t)
(set! result x)
result))))))))

Rationale:
A promise may refer to its own value, as in the last example above.
Forcing such a promise may cause the promise to be forced a second time
before the value of the first force has been computed.
This complicates the definition of makepromise.
Various extensions to this semantics of delay and force
are supported in some implementations:
 Calling force on an object that is not a promise may simply
return the object.
 It may be the case that there is no means by which a promise can be
operationally distinguished from its forced value. That is, expressions
like the following may evaluate to either #t or to #f,
depending on the implementation:
(eqv? (delay 1) 1) => unspecified
(pair? (delay (cons 1 2))) => unspecified

 Some implementations may implement ``implicit forcing,'' where
the value of a promise is forced by primitive procedures like cdr
and +:
(+ (delay (* 3 7)) 13) => 34


callwithcurrentcontinuation proc  procedure 
Proc must be a procedure of one
argument. The procedure callwithcurrentcontinuation packages
up the current continuation (see the rationale below) as an ``escape
procedure'' and passes it as an argument to
proc . The escape procedure is a Scheme procedure that, if it is
later called, will abandon whatever continuation is in effect at that later
time and will instead use the continuation that was in effect
when the escape procedure was created. Calling the escape procedure
may cause the invocation of before and after thunks installed using
dynamicwind .
The escape procedure accepts the same number of arguments as the
continuation to the original call to callwithcurrentcontinuation.
Except for continuations created by the callwithvalues
procedure, all continuations take exactly one value. The effect of
passing no value or more than one value to continuations that were not
created by callwithvalues is unspecified.
The escape procedure that is passed to proc has
unlimited extent just like any other procedure in Scheme. It may be stored
in variables or data structures and may be called as many times as desired.
The following examples show only the most common ways in which
callwithcurrentcontinuation is used. If all real uses were as
simple as these examples, there would be no need for a procedure with
the power of callwithcurrentcontinuation.
(callwithcurrentcontinuation
(lambda (exit)
(foreach (lambda (x)
(if (negative? x)
(exit x)))
'(54 0 37 3 245 19))
#t)) => 3
(define listlength
(lambda (obj)
(callwithcurrentcontinuation
(lambda (return)
(letrec ((r
(lambda (obj)
(cond ((null? obj) 0)
((pair? obj)
(+ (r (cdr obj)) 1))
(else (return #f))))))
(r obj))))))
(listlength '(1 2 3 4)) => 4
(listlength '(a b . c)) => #f

Rationale:
A common use of callwithcurrentcontinuation is for
structured, nonlocal exits from loops or procedure bodies, but in fact
callwithcurrentcontinuation is extremely useful for implementing a
wide variety of advanced control structures.
Whenever a Scheme expression is evaluated there is a
"continuation" wanting the result of the expression. The continuation
represents an entire (default) future for the computation. If the expression is
evaluated at top level, for example, then the continuation might take the
result, print it on the screen, prompt for the next input, evaluate it, and
so on forever. Most of the time the continuation includes actions
specified by user code, as in a continuation that will take the result,
multiply it by the value stored in a local variable, add seven, and give
the answer to the top level continuation to be printed. Normally these
ubiquitous continuations are hidden behind the scenes and programmers do not
think much about them. On rare occasions, however, a programmer may
need to deal with continuations explicitly.
Callwithcurrentcontinuation allows Scheme programmers to do
that by creating a procedure that acts just like the current
continuation.
Most programming languages incorporate one or more specialpurpose
escape constructs with names like exit, return, or
even goto. In 1965, however, Peter Landin [Landin65]
invented a general purpose escape operator called the Joperator. John
Reynolds [Reynolds72] described a simpler but equally powerful
construct in 1972. The catch special form described by Sussman
and Steele in the 1975 report on Scheme is exactly the same as
Reynolds's construct, though its name came from a less general construct
in MacLisp. Several Scheme implementors noticed that the full power of the
catch construct could be provided by a procedure instead of by a
special syntactic construct, and the name
callwithcurrentcontinuation was coined in 1982. This name is
descriptive, but opinions differ on the merits of such a long name, and
some people use the name call/cc instead.

Delivers all of its arguments to its continuation.
Except for continuations created by the callwithvalues
procedure, all continuations take exactly one value.
Values might be defined as follows:
(define (values . things)
(callwithcurrentcontinuation
(lambda (cont) (apply cont things))))


callwithvalues producer consumer  procedure 
Calls its producer argument with no values and
a continuation that, when passed some values, calls the
consumer procedure with those values as arguments.
The continuation for the call to consumer is the
continuation of the call to callwithvalues.
(callwithvalues (lambda () (values 4 5))
(lambda (a b) b))
=> 5
(callwithvalues * ) => 1


dynamicwind before thunk after  procedure 
Calls thunk without arguments, returning the result(s) of this call.
Before and after are called, also without arguments, as required
by the following rules (note that in the absence of calls to continuations
captured using callwithcurrentcontinuation the three arguments are
called once each, in order). Before is called whenever execution
enters the dynamic extent of the call to thunk and after is called
whenever it exits that dynamic extent. The dynamic extent of a procedure
call is the period between when the call is initiated and when it
returns. In Scheme, because of callwithcurrentcontinuation, the
dynamic extent of a call may not be a single, connected time period.
It is defined as follows:
 The dynamic extent is entered when execution of the body of the
called procedure begins.
 The dynamic extent is also entered when execution is not within
the dynamic extent and a continuation is invoked that was captured
(using callwithcurrentcontinuation) during the dynamic extent.
 It is exited when the called procedure returns.
 It is also exited when execution is within the dynamic extent and
a continuation is invoked that was captured while not within the
dynamic extent.
If a second call to dynamicwind occurs within the dynamic extent of the
call to thunk and then a continuation is invoked in such a way that the
after s from these two invocations of dynamicwind are both to be
called, then the after associated with the second (inner) call to
dynamicwind is called first.
If a second call to dynamicwind occurs within the dynamic extent of the
call to thunk and then a continuation is invoked in such a way that the
before s from these two invocations of dynamicwind are both to be
called, then the before associated with the first (outer) call to
dynamicwind is called first.
If invoking a continuation requires calling the before from one call
to dynamicwind and the after from another, then the after
is called first.
The effect of using a captured continuation to enter or exit the dynamic
extent of a call to before or after is undefined.
(let ((path '())
(c #f))
(let ((add (lambda (s)
(set! path (cons s path)))))
(dynamicwind
(lambda () (add 'connect))
(lambda ()
(add (callwithcurrentcontinuation
(lambda (c0)
(set! c c0)
'talk1))))
(lambda () (add 'disconnect)))
(if (< (length path) 4)
(c 'talk2)
(reverse path))))
=> (connect talk1 disconnect
connect talk2 disconnect)


eval expression environmentspecifier  procedure 
Evaluates expression in the specified environment and returns its value.
Expression must be a valid Scheme expression represented as data,
and environmentspecifier must be a value returned by one of the
three procedures described below.
Implementations may extend eval to allow nonexpression programs
(definitions) as the first argument and to allow other
values as environments, with the restriction that eval is not
allowed to create new bindings in the environments associated with
nullenvironment or schemereportenvironment.
(eval '(* 7 3) (schemereportenvironment 5))
=> 21
(let ((f (eval '(lambda (f x) (f x x))
(nullenvironment 5))))
(f + 10))
=> 20


schemereportenvironment version  procedure 
nullenvironment version  procedure 
Version must be the exact integer 5,
corresponding to this revision of the Scheme report (the
Revised^5 Report on Scheme).
Schemereportenvironment returns a specifier for an
environment that is empty except for all bindings defined in
this report that are either required or both optional and
supported by the implementation. Nullenvironment returns
a specifier for an environment that is empty except for the
(syntactic) bindings for all syntactic keywords defined in
this report that are either required or both optional and
supported by the implementation.
Other values of version can be used to specify environments
matching past revisions of this report, but their support is not
required. An implementation will signal an error if version
is neither 5 nor another value supported by
the implementation.
The effect of assigning (through the use of eval) a variable
bound in a schemereportenvironment
(for example car) is unspecified. Thus the environments specified
by schemereportenvironment may be immutable.

interactionenvironment  optional procedure 
This procedure returns a specifier for the environment that
contains implementationdefined bindings, typically a superset of
those listed in the report. The intent is that this procedure
will return the environment in which the implementation would evaluate
expressions dynamically typed by the user.

Ports represent input and output devices. To Scheme, an input port is a
Scheme object that can deliver characters upon command, while an output port
is a Scheme object that can accept characters.
callwithinputfile string proc  library procedure 
callwithoutputfile string proc  library procedure 
String should be a string naming a file, and
proc should be a procedure that accepts one argument.
For callwithinputfile,
the file should already exist; for
callwithoutputfile,
the effect is unspecified if the file
already exists. These procedures call proc with one argument: the
port obtained by opening the named file for input or output. If the
file cannot be opened, an error is signalled. If proc returns,
then the port is closed automatically and the value(s) yielded by the
proc is(are) returned. If proc does not return, then
the port will not be closed automatically unless it is possible to
prove that the port will never again be used for a read or write
operation.
Rationale:
Because Scheme's escape procedures have unlimited extent, it is
possible to escape from the current continuation but later to escape back in.
If implementations were permitted to close the port on any escape from the
current continuation, then it would be impossible to write portable code using
both callwithcurrentcontinuation and callwithinputfile or
callwithoutputfile.

outputport? obj  procedure 
Returns #t if obj is an input port or output port
respectively, otherwise returns #f.

currentinputport  procedure 
currentoutputport  procedure 
Returns the current default input or output port.

withinputfromfile string thunk  optional procedure 
withoutputtofile string thunk  optional procedure 
String should be a string naming a file, and
proc should be a procedure of no arguments.
For withinputfromfile,
the file should already exist; for
withoutputtofile,
the effect is unspecified if the file
already exists.
The file is opened for input or output, an input or output port
connected to it is made the default value returned by
currentinputport or currentoutputport
(and is used by (read), (write obj ), and so forth),
and the
thunk is called with no arguments. When the thunk returns,
the port is closed and the previous default is restored.
Withinputfromfile and withoutputtofile return(s) the
value(s) yielded by thunk .
If an escape procedure
is used to escape from the continuation of these procedures, their
behavior is implementation dependent.

openinputfile filename  procedure 
Takes a string naming an existing file and returns an input port capable of
delivering characters from the file. If the file cannot be opened, an error is
signalled.

openoutputfile filename  procedure 
Takes a string naming an output file to be created and returns an output
port capable of writing characters to a new file by that name. If the file
cannot be opened, an error is signalled. If a file with the given name
already exists, the effect is unspecified.

closeinputport port  procedure 
closeoutputport port  procedure 
Closes the file associated with port , rendering the port
incapable of delivering or accepting characters.
These routines have no effect if the file has already been closed.
The value returned is unspecified.

read port  library procedure 
Read converts external representations of Scheme objects into the
objects themselves. That is, it is a parser for the nonterminal
<datum> (see sections External representation and
Pairs and lists). Read returns the next
object parsable from the given input port , updating port to point to
the first character past the end of the external representation of the object.
If an end of file is encountered in the input before any
characters are found that can begin an object, then an end of file
object is returned.
The port remains open, and further attempts
to read will also return an end of file object. If an end of file is
encountered after the beginning of an object's external representation,
but the external representation is incomplete and therefore not parsable,
an error is signalled.
The port argument may be omitted, in which case it defaults to the
value returned by currentinputport. It is an error to read from
a closed port.

Returns the next character available from the input port , updating
the port to point to the following character. If no more characters
are available, an end of file object is returned. Port may be
omitted, in which case it defaults to the value returned by currentinputport.

Returns the next character available from the input port ,
without updating
the port to point to the following character. If no more characters
are available, an end of file object is returned. Port may be
omitted, in which case it defaults to the value returned by currentinputport.
Note:
The value returned by a call to peekchar is the same as the
value that would have been returned by a call to readchar with the
same port . The only difference is that the very next call to
readchar or peekchar on that port will return the
value returned by the preceding call to peekchar. In particular, a call
to peekchar on an interactive port will hang waiting for input
whenever a call to readchar would have hung.

Returns #t if obj is an end of file object, otherwise returns
#f. The precise set of end of file objects will vary among
implementations, but in any case no end of file object will ever be an object
that can be read in using read.

charready? port  procedure 
Returns #t if a character is ready on the input port and
returns #f otherwise. If charready returns #t then
the next readchar operation on the given port is guaranteed
not to hang. If the port is at end of file then charready?
returns #t. Port may be omitted, in which case it defaults to
the value returned by currentinputport.
Rationale:
Charready? exists to make it possible for a program to
accept characters from interactive ports without getting stuck waiting for
input. Any input editors associated with such ports must ensure that
characters whose existence has been asserted by charready? cannot
be rubbed out. If charready? were to return #f at end of
file, a port at end of file would be indistinguishable from an interactive
port that has no ready characters.

write obj  library procedure 
write obj port  library procedure 
Writes a written representation of obj to the given port . Strings
that appear in the written representation are enclosed in doublequotes, and
within those strings backslash and doublequote characters are
escaped by backslashes.
Character objects are written using the #\ notation.
Write returns an unspecified value. The
port argument may be omitted, in which case it defaults to the value
returned by currentoutputport.

display obj  library procedure 
display obj port  library procedure 
Writes a representation of obj to the given port . Strings
that appear in the written representation are not enclosed in
doublequotes, and no characters are escaped within those strings. Character
objects appear in the representation as if written by writechar
instead of by write. Display returns an unspecified value.
The port argument may be omitted, in which case it defaults to the
value returned by currentoutputport.
Rationale:
Write is intended
for producing machinereadable output and display is for producing
humanreadable output. Implementations that allow ``slashification''
within symbols will probably want write but not display to
slashify funny characters in symbols.

newline  library procedure 
newline port  library procedure 
Writes an end of line to port . Exactly how this is done differs
from one operating system to another. Returns an unspecified value.
The port argument may be omitted, in which case it defaults to the
value returned by currentoutputport.

writechar char port  procedure 
Writes the character char (not an external representation of the
character) to the given port and returns an unspecified value. The
port argument may be omitted, in which case it defaults to the value
returned by currentoutputport.

Questions of system interface generally fall outside of the domain of this
report. However, the following operations are important enough to
deserve description here.
load filename  optional procedure 
Filename should be a string naming an existing file
containing Scheme source code. The load procedure reads
expressions and definitions from the file and evaluates them
sequentially. It is unspecified whether the results of the expressions
are printed. The load procedure does not affect the values
returned by currentinputport and currentoutputport.
Load returns an unspecified value.
Rationale:
For portability, load must operate on source files.
Its operation on other kinds of files necessarily varies among
implementations.

transcripton filename  optional procedure 
transcriptoff  optional procedure 
Filename must be a string naming an output file to be
created. The effect of transcripton is to open the named file
for output, and to cause a transcript of subsequent interaction between
the user and the Scheme system to be written to the file. The
transcript is ended by a call to transcriptoff, which closes the
transcript file. Only one transcript may be in progress at any time,
though some implementations may relax this restriction. The values
returned by these procedures are unspecified.

